January 10, 1968, in South Vietnam: Specialist fifth class Clarence Sasser and his battalion are conducting an air assault while on reconnaissance in Dinh Tuong Province. Without warning, they begin to take heavy enemy fire and one of their helicopters goes down. In minutes, 30 men are killed and several more are wounded. Without hesitation, Sasser, a medical aidman, runs across an open rice field through a hail of enemy fire to aid his fallen countrymen. After moving one man to safety, an exploding mortar shoots shrapnel into Sasser’s left shoulder and two additional shots from enemy soldiers immobilize both his legs. Despite these agonizing wounds, he drags himself through the mud, calling orders for others to move to safety as he aids more wounded soldiers.
It took several months of rehabilitation in Japan before Sasser regained use of his legs. Upon his return to the United States in 1969, Sasser received the Medal of Honor from President Richard Nixon for his life-saving acts of valor, which were deemed above and beyond the call of duty. He was later recruited to attend Texas A&M University on a scholarship personally offered by the late Gen. Earl Rudder, who was then president of the university. While life circumstances prevented Sasser from graduating, he remained an Aggie at heart, and in 2014, he was presented with an honorary degree from Texas A&M.
In recognition of his selfless service – a quality that those in the health care professions demonstrate on a daily basis – the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine created the Clarence Sasser Scholarship this year, a $25,000 scholarship initially made possible by the generous contribution of an anonymous donor and slated to be awarded annually to entering medical students who demonstrate the same dedication that Mr. Sasser personified on the battlefield.
“Excellence, integrity, leadership, loyalty, respect and selfless service – these are the values that define Texas A&M, and we seek to instill each of these in the physicians we educate,” said Paul Ogden, M.D., interim dean of the Texas A&M College of Medicine. “Clarence Sasser embodies all of these traits, as witnessed in his courageous acts in Vietnam and throughout his life. I cannot think of a better example of the type of physician we’re striving to produce.”
“As an army medic with aspirations of becoming a doctor, this is truly an honor to be recognized in this manner,” Sasser said. “I hope the scholarship will be a ticket for future medical student hopefuls to achieve their goals of becoming Aggie physicians.”
One of those hopefuls, Johnny Espinoza, is now well on his way to becoming an Aggie physician thanks to the generous scholarship.
Espinoza, the first-ever Sasser Scholar, began classes at the Texas A&M College of Medicine in July. Prior to joining the ranks of future Aggie doctors, he served for more than eight years as an Army veterinary food inspection specialist, while he earned dual bachelor’s degrees in chemistry and biology from the University of Mary Hardin Baylor in Belton, Texas. During those eight years he served a tour in Iraq, a decision he made so one of his soldiers wouldn’t have to go alone.
“Another unit was deployed, but they had one soldier who was unable to go, so they pulled a soldier from my unit. I was a higher rank, so they didn’t need me, but I didn’t want her to go alone, so I volunteered,” he said.
After the military, Espinoza worked for a pharmaceutical company and then began applying for medical school. When he interviewed at Texas A&M, he says it just felt right.
“The students at Texas A&M seemed like they had really close relationships with their professors and could always ask them for help when they needed them. The atmosphere felt very genuine,” he said.
After completing medical school and residency, Espinoza plans to work in medically underserved areas in rural regions of the U.S., but says he would ideally like to serve as a Navy surgeon so he can travel and help those in third-world nations where access to medical care is scarce at best.
Espinoza had the privilege of meeting Clarence Sasser at a scholarship award ceremony held on the Texas A&M Health Science Center Bryan campus this summer.
“It was a real honor to meet a living recipient of the Medal of Honor,” he said. “I hope if I am ever in Mr. Sasser’s situation that I will have the courage and fortitude to press forward and assist my patients as he assisted those with whom he served.”
This article was originally published by the Health Science Center.
You can support scholarships in Texas A&M University’s Health Science Center with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
Andrew Robison ’04
Director of Development
Health Science Center
Shared-use laboratories, flexible classrooms and a state-of-the-art educational environment will soon be the new academic learning ground for engineering students at Texas A&M University thanks to a $2 million contribution from The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW).
The nearly 550,000 sq. ft. Engineering Education Complex (ECC), part of Texas A&M’s Dwight Look College of Engineering, will become the hub of the university’s undergraduate engineering program. It will be built adjacent to the existing Zachry Engineering Center, which will be renovated during the construction project.
“This generous donation from Dow is more than just a contribution to a building, it is support for our vision to provide a unique learning environment for our students,” said Dr. M. Katherine Banks, vice chancellor and dean of engineering. “This new facility will change the way we deliver our engineering education and thus help us to produce the next engineering leaders.”
With more than 350 tenured/tenure-track faculty members and more than 12,000 students, the Look College is one of the largest engineering schools in the country, ranking third in undergraduate enrollment and ninth in graduate enrollment. The college is ranked by U.S. News & World Report seventh in graduate studies, eighth in undergraduate programs, and second in research expenditures among public institutions, with seven of the college’s 13 departments ranked in the Top 10.
Dow has a history of supporting higher education and invests in universities all over the world. In addition to this $2 million contribution, Dow hopes to see a paradigm shift in the value generated from relationships with academic partners through its multi-faceted support of faculty and students, research, academic programs and infrastructure.
“Texas A&M is one of Dow’s top universities for recruitment of engineers and scientists, and Aggie engineers have played a huge part in Dow’s success globally for many decades,” said Jeff Garry, manufacturing and technology director for the Microbial Control and Performance Monomers businesses at Dow. “We are thrilled to continue our long-time relationship with Texas A&M and look forward to seeing the students thrive in their new surroundings.”
This article was originally published by the Dwight Look College of Engineering.
You can support educational facilities at Texas A&M University’s Dwight Look College of Engineering with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
Assistant Vice President for Development
Dwight Look College of Engineering
In a move that could have huge implications for national security, researchers have created a very sensitive and tiny detector that is capable of detecting radiation from various sources at room temperature. The detector is eight to nine orders of magnitude –100 million to as high as 1 billion — times faster than the existing technology, and a Texas A&M University at Galveston professor is a key player in the discovery.
Luke Nyakiti, assistant professor in marine engineering technology and Materials Science and Engineering at Texas A&M University at Galveston, is part of the research team that has had its work published in the current issue of Nature Nanotechnology.
Nyakiti and colleagues from the University of Maryland, the University of Massachusetts, the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and Monash University in Australia fabricated the tiny photothermoelectric detector following successful growth of graphene at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. The project was funded by the office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation.
The team’s goal was to utilize the exceptional electronic carrier properties of graphene to create a photo detector device that could detect radiation at room temperature with the fastest response, which previously has been extremely difficult to do. The researchers used a two-dimensional material called graphene that is made of carbon atoms that are arranged in a honeycomb-like geometrical structure (the diameter of a human hair is 300,000 times thicker than a two-dimensional sheet of graphene).
Graphene was chosen because it conducts electricity with ease, it is nearly transparent, and it is remarkably strong (100 times stronger than steel). Also, it is very sensitive to energy absorbance.
“The problem before is that there has always been a ‘slow response’ when it came to detecting radiation in the terahertz frequency range, especially at room temperature, and the technology that currently exists operated at very cold temperatures, subsequently requiring supportive electronic systems that adds to the cost,” Nyakiti explains.
He says the benefit of using this detector is that its signals do not pose a health hazard to the people using it. Also, besides the extremely high sensing speeds reported by the device, the team anticipates further improvements in sensing ability.
“We are very excited that our detector system provides a unique answer to fast, subtle detection capabilities that are a million to a billion times faster in its detection capability, without posing short-term or long term health hazards to those who are operating it,” Nyakiti reports .
“It was indeed an exciting time for all of us when this happened. Because it is much more effective in detecting radiation, the device could be very promising for homeland security purposes. It also might have applications in mobile devices, medical imaging and other uses.
“This has the potential to open up other device possibilities in medical applications. This is a huge first step.”
This article was originally published by the TAMU Times.
You can support faculty research at Texas A&M University at Galveston with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
Senior Director of Development
Texas A&M University at Galveston
COLLEGE STATION, Texas – The genetic changes that transformed wild animals into domesticated forms have long been a mystery. However, an international team of scientists has made a breakthrough by showing that many genes controlling the development of the brain and the nervous system were particularly important for rabbit domestication, according to a study published today in the journal Science.
The domestication of animals and plants, a prerequisite for the development of agriculture, is one of the most important technological revolutions during human history. Domestication of animals started as early as 9,000 to 15,000 years ago and initially involved dogs, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. The rabbit was domesticated much later, about 1,400 years ago, at monasteries in southern France. When domestication occurred, the wild ancestor, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), was confined to the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.
“There are several reasons why the rabbit is an outstanding model for genetic studies of domestication,” said Miguel Carneiro, from CIBIO/Inbio-University of Porto, one of the leading authors on the paper. “Its domestication was relatively recent, we know where it happened, and this region is still densely populated with wild rabbits.”
The scientists first sequenced the entire genome of one domestic rabbit to develop a reference genome assembly. Then they re-sequenced entire genomes of domestic rabbits representing six different breeds and wild rabbits sampled at 14 different places across the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.
“No previous study on animal domestication has involved such a careful examination of genetic variation in the wild ancestral species,” said Leif Andersson of Uppsala University, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and Texas A&M University. “This allowed us to pinpoint the genetic changes that have occurred during rabbit domestication.”
This domestication has primarily occurred by altering the frequencies of gene variants that were already present in the wild ancestor. “Our data shows that domestication primarily involved small changes in many genes, and not drastic changes in a few genes,” continued Andersson.
The team observed very few examples where a gene variant common in domestic rabbits had completely replaced the gene variant present in wild rabbits; it was rather shifts in frequencies of those variants that were favored in domestic rabbits.
“The results we have are very clear,” Carneiro said. “The difference between a wild and a tame rabbit is not which genes they carry but how their genes are regulated—when and how much of each gene is used in different cells.”
The study also revealed which genes have been altered during domestication, most noticeably strong enrichment in domestic rabbits of genes involved in the development of the brain and the nervous system.
The study shows that the wild rabbit is a highly polymorphic species that carries gene variants that were favorable during domestication, and that the accumulation of many small changes led to the inhibition of the strong flight response—one of the most prominent phenotypic changes in the evolution of the domestic rabbit.
“We predict that a similar process has occurred in other domestic animals and that we will not find a few specific ‘domestication genes’ that were critical for domestication,” Andersson said. “It is very likely that a similar diversity of gene variants affecting the brain and the nervous system occurs in the human population and that contributes to differences in personality and behavior.
This article was originally published by the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences.
You can support faculty research at Texas A&M University’s College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
O.J. Bubba Woytek ’64
Assistant Vice President for Development
Providing a reliable source of purified drinking water for our U.S. military as they serve our nation in the field is the focus of a research grant awarded to Virender K. Sharma, Ph.D., M.Tech, M.Sc., professor at the Texas A&M Health Science Center School of Public Health.
The Battelle Memorial Institute has awarded a subcontract to the Texas A&M School of Public Health to develop a portable water treatment device using naturally occurring iron in the environment. According to Sharma, this iron is easily converted to an environmentally friendly chemical compound called ferrate that can be used as a water treatment disinfectant to purify water.
“In a matter of minutes polluted water contaminated with pesticides and other toxins can be purified using ferrate without possibly leaving harmful by-products currently left behind with traditional water treatment chemicals, such as free chlorine, choramines and ozone,” says Sharma.
A research group led by Sharma is conducting laboratory studies to demonstrate the efficacy of ferrate to remove a wide range of contaminants. Results of the research will contribute to the development of the device. Additional Texas A&M School of Public Health researchers working on the project are Natalie Johnson, Ph.D., Thomas McDonald, Ph.D., and Ranjana Mehta, Ph.D.
Sharma, an environmental chemist, was recently named interim department head of the Environmental and Occupational Health Department at the Texas A&M School of Public Health.
This article was originally published by the Texas A&M Health Science Center.
You can support faculty research at Texas A&M University’s Health Science Center with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
Andrew Robison ’04
Director of Development
I enjoyed the stories about diversity at Texas A&M University in the fall 2013 issue of Spirit and would like to add my perspective on the integration of minorities in Texas A&M’s College of Education, which I believe led the way in integrating the faculty at Texas A&M.
The decision that our faculty made to take the lead in seeking minority faculty and students was the action that I will always remember as the most important and most satisfying in my 50 years in the field of education. When I was hired as the second dean of the College of Education in 1980, there was only one minority member of our faculty, Jesus Garcia. There were only two African-American faculty members in the entire university. The college’s special concern regarding diversity began shortly after I arrived and specific action took place at our first faculty retreat.
The theme for the retreat was: What do we want the college to look like five years from now? One of five concept papers that was prepared for discussion outlined a rationale and plan for changing the ethnic makeup of our college. The paper did not mention quotas or federal mandates. The major thrust of the discussion that followed was that we were all hypocrites unless we took action to ensure that our faculty reflected the kind of ethnic makeup of the people whom our graduates would later teach, counsel and administer.
Demographer Steve Murdock had just produced his first study that spelled out the socioeconomic implications of the disparities among Whites, African-Americans and Hispanics. His data showed that since minority families were having more children, minorities were becoming the majority in the school population faster than the general population. He reported that about 30 percent of the students in Texas schools were Hispanic and about 20 percent were African-American. Because of the location of different ethnic groups and the shortage of minority teachers, unless things changed, some students, including minority students, would not experience having a minority teacher or attending an integrated classroom. As faculty in one of the state’s land-grant universities, we agreed that integration of our college was not just a necessity, it was an obligation of professional leadership. Professionally and morally as educators we could not say one thing and do another.
At the conclusion of our retreat, we identified the cultural diversity mission as one of the most important. To sustain this mission and provide ongoing oversight, we created a special Multicultural Education Inquiry Group. Within five years we had hired African-American and Hispanic faculty in every department of the college. In the first five years we hired 14 minorities. Some are still working at Texas A&M. Others went on to take positions in other institutions, such as Viola Florez, who became dean of the College of Education at the University of New Mexico, and Ruben Donato, who became a leader in the National Education Policy Center and Department of Educational Foundations at the University of Colorado. Over the years all of the minority faculty members who left continued their association with their Aggie colleagues and carried the Aggie spirit with them.
The key to our success in recruiting minority faculty was that it was a faculty effort. As you know, deans do not hire faculty. Faculty members are hired on the recommendation of faculty search committees. One of the key elements of our success was that early in the process, instead of hiring minority faculty who had just finished their doctorates, we hired two full professors who had already established themselves with excellent reputations in major universities. The most important result of this approach was to open lines of communication with a wider pool of minority candidates.
Oversight of the recruitment process by the Multicultural Education Inquiry Group assured that we would identify minority candidates for every opening. The faculty recognized that the number of minorities in the potential pool of candidates was small in comparison, and coming to live in College Station to work at a university with so few minorities would be a recruiting challenge. Members of the faculty knew that they had to convince minority candidates that the college community needed and wanted them as colleagues. They had to make their commitment clear. One of the ways they did this was to express their willingness to match the competition even if it meant that the salary offered by the competition was higher than they were making at their rank and experience level. The fact that our faculty was willing to go to such lengths to accomplish its mission made a difference. I don’t know of a clearer indication of commitment than that. Needless to say, I was proud to lead such a dedicated group.
Our minority faculty recruitment effort was accompanied by a variety of programs to attract minority students. For example, under Dr. Doug Palmer’s leadership, the college was awarded grants from the U.S. Office of Special Education. On a year-to-year basis, more Hispanic graduate students completed a doctorate in special education in our Department of Educational Psychology than the total number from all of the graduate institutions in the United States. Also important in increasing the number of minority graduate students was the creation by Steve Stark and Cliff Whetten of an off-campus center in San Antonio where faculty would travel to teach graduate courses and serve as advisors to provide easier access for minority students to enroll and study at Texas A&M.
With leadership and support from President Frank Vandiver, President Bill Mobley, Provost Mack Prescott, Provost Gordon Eaton and Associate Provost Clint Phillips, the College of Education led the way in seeking minority faculty, staff and students. It was important in our recruitment efforts to inform candidates that other Texas A&M faculty were actively supporting minority recruiting. For example, the central role of John McDermott and Ruth Schaeffer, who chaired the University Minority Recruitment Committee, cannot be overstated. They were the driving force throughout the campus in these early days. Their committee, on which I was pleased to serve, spearheaded the process of multicultural diversity by conducting interviews with every department head to get reports of action or inaction on minority recruitment. They also brought the issue to the Faculty Senate in a way that demanded action. Someday I hope the university will do something to honor them for their leadership on this issue, as well as many other human rights causes.
In addition to strong support from Texas A&M’s central administration and the university faculty committee, it is important to remember the crucial role our college development council played in making the integration effort successful. With the leadership of the College of Education’s first council chair, Peggy Coghlan, and council member Sylvia Fernandez and her husband Raul, the group connected the college to the diverse communities it served and gained crucial financial and moral support from former students for our multicultural education mission. In fact, Sylvia reported on the special role of the development council in her doctoral dissertation titled, The College of Education at Texas A&M University 1969 to 1988—the Transition Years.
The context in which the college decided to meet the challenge of cultural diversity is important to consider. As the college was developing a reputation for reform and innovation it was expected to undertake this important mission just like other leading colleges of education in the country were doing at the time. If we were going to lead nationally as well as locally, we had to lead in this important area of education reform. That was also true for the other colleges on campus, as well. The four new deans of other Texas A&M colleges who were appointed the same year I arrived recognized this fact and were more than willing to work together on multicultural education. For example, in 1983 we enrolled more math and science teaching majors than any university in the
country. This achievement was accomplished with the collaboration of John Fackler, dean of the College of Science, his faculty and June and Dick Scobee. (June was a doctoral student in educational psychology at Texas A&M; Dick was commander of the Challenger space shuttle.)
In conclusion, as former dean of the college, I would be remiss if I didn’t mention another important part of the story. It will come as no surprise to you that not all Aggies were pleased with our decision to place the recruitment of minorities at the top of our agenda. I kept a folder that contained letters from people who called us every name in the book. These letters were a vivid reminder of the challenge we faced. Since half of the new minority recruits were women, it is interesting to note that the women’s equity issue was of particular concern in these letters as well as the minority issue. You will recall that in those days, equity for women was part of the debate that was taking place. Making the search for minority faculty a top priority was quite a change, and the fact that half of the new minority faculty members that we hired were women was quite a change as well. However, once integration happened, Aggies accepted it and were proud to be participants in it. The stories in the fall 2013 issue of Spirit attest to that.
Suffice it to say, we have many people to thank for the courage and commitment it took to make diversity a success at Texas A&M, not the least of which are the minority faculty who were the first to come to Texas A&M. They helped Texas A&M to become the great university it is today. As I read the fall 2013 issue of Spirit, I feel good about the tremendous progress made regarding diversity. It was not easy, but that is what made it so rewarding. It was such a pleasure to work with people who did what the right thing at a critical time. Dr. Ed Davis, president of the Texas A&M Foundation, is one of these people. As a graduate of the College of Education, former professor in the Educational Administration and Human Resources Department, our story of diversity is not new to him. He lived it with the rest of us.
I loved every minutes of the 20 years of my professional life that I devoted to Texas A&M and dealing with challenging issues like diversity. As each day goes by, the moments I shared with Aggie colleagues and students become more precious.
Congratulations to you and your staff for an excellent issue of Spirit.
—DEAN CORRIGAN, FORMER DEAN
TEXAS A&M COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
This article was originally posted in the Letters section of the summer 2014 issue of Spirit magazine. Read the full publication here.
You can support the College of Education and Human Development at Texas A&M University with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
Jody Ford ’99
Director of Development
With worldwide energy demand projected to rise anywhere from 35 to 40 percent between now and 2040, the hunt is on for viable sources and solutions. Texas A&M University chemist Marcetta Darensbourg is exploring lessons provided in nature and focusing on the simplest of all molecules, hydrogen, to open related doors to inexpensive, eco-friendly, hydrogen-based energy alternatives.
Specifically, Darensbourg, an internationally respected expert in synthetic and mechanistic inorganic chemistry, is developing methods to perfect the high-stakes technology of hydrogen-powered fuel cells. Her lab is taking the novel approach of introducing Earth-abundant elements — iron, nickel and sulfur — into hydrogen-producing molecular catalysts intended to replace platinum as the kick starter in these fuel cells.
Darensbourg, a distinguished professor of chemistry since 2010, first began exploring the inorganic biocatalysts within hydrogen-controlling microorganisms for use in clean-energy initiatives nearly two decades ago. A pioneer in many areas of chemistry, she became the first-ever female recipient in 1995 of the American Chemical Society’s Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Inorganic Chemistry Award, the ACS’s top annual honor for inorganic accomplishment. (Kim Dunbar, fellow Texas A&M distinguished professor of chemistry, became the second earlier this month.)
“It will be momentous for renewable energy if we can find the most effective way of doing this, and we — by that, I mean a community of scientists dedicated to this area — are very close,” Darensbourg said. “There’s still much to be done, but I think everyone is aware enough that we can figure this out.”
How It Works
Fuel cells have been heralded by the U.S. Department of Energy for their potential to provide a reliable source of heat and electricity for American homes and automobiles as well as to dramatically reduce reliance on fossil fuels. Somewhat related to batteries, they work by electrochemically combining hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, heat and water in a process that is both highly efficient and virtually emission-free, making them an attractive commodity in green-energy sectors and industries from automobile manufacturing to power generation. But whereas batteries have limitations — namely a fixed energy supply or, at best, a time constraint required for recharging — fuel cells can generate energy continuously, so long as they have a fuel supply.
Darensbourg believes the best such fuel supply is hydrogen. The technology, however, still faces a number of environmental and economic obstacles that she and her team are working to address.
One issue is platinum, the catalyst currently used in fuel cells to convert hydrogen and oxygen into electricity. While platinum is ideal because it can easily shuttle between oxidation states, it is expensive and resource-limited, rendering it ineffective for large-scale, global use. Further, although hydrogen is the most abundant of all elements, it is expensive to acquire from water, and generating it from non-renewable resources such as oil or natural gas places a significant burden on fossil-fuel resources while also potentially creating an undesirable byproduct: pollutants.
Harnessing Mother Nature’s Resources
The Darensbourg lab’s goal of utilizing Earth-abundant transition metals, such as iron and nickel, in these reactions as an alternative to platinum could open doors to a more cost-effective, readily available source of hydrogen energy.
“We hope our work will be able two answer two things: how to make hydrogen, ultimately harvesting energy from the Sun, and how to use hydrogen,” she said.
Darensbourg’s inspiration comes from Mother Nature herself — specifically, lessons in the form of hydrogenase enzymes, which are biological catalysts found in bacteria and other microorganisms that use hydrogen as an energy vector. A chemical reaction similar to what fuel cells undergo to produce energy occurs naturally in such microorganisms that exploit hydrogenase enzymes. While fuel cells use platinum to regulate the hydrogen-oxygen reaction, which creates a huge amount of energy per reaction, hydrogenase enzymes do it more efficiently, thanks to the properties of sophisticated arrangements of iron and nickel.
Piecing Together the Puzzle
Although the discovery of the role of hydrogenases in methane-producing microorganisms occurred some eight decades ago, active research into the role of metals and their catalytically active sites — the small pockets within an enzyme where molecules have the potential to undergo a chemical reaction — has taken flight only in the last 15 to 20 years following structure determinations by X-ray crystallography. Darensbourg, who is trained as an organometallic chemist, found that she could create molecular mimics of the active sites of hydrogenase enzymes and then measure their ability to produce dihydrogen and, on the other side, extract energy from the hydrogen-hydrogen bond.
The takeaway for Darensbourg is to observe how active sites operate and understand how to create better molecular models — fundamental chemistry work in which each stage and new discovery will bring the international community of scientists in this area that much closer to utilizing those compounds as viable catalytic alternatives to platinum.
“These hydrogenase enzyme active sites give us an idea of how to make hydrogen and extract electrons,” Darensbourg said. “Each step of understanding is a step forward to using synthetic analogues as catalyst materials.”
If Darensbourg can perfect this approach, the next big question will be how to store the hydrogen. Because it has a low-energy density, hydrogen must be stored and transported under high pressure, making it a highly cumbersome and volatile resource. Other chemists, including several in the Texas A&M Department of Chemistry, are working to address these problems.
The hydrogen economy has been a national priority since 2003 when then-President George W. Bush announced a $1.2 billion initiative to make it competitive for reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing a cleaner supply of energy.
While plenty of work remains, Darensbourg and her group of graduate and undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellow coworkers are optimistic about the future of a hydrogen economy.
“If we could do this effectively — take the energy of the Sun, make hydrogen, store it and use it in a fuel cell to generate electricity — that’s huge,” Darensbourg said.
A member of the Texas A&M Chemistry faculty since 1982, Darensbourg is an inaugural fellow of the American Chemical Society (2009) and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2011), one the country’s oldest and most prestigious honorary learned societies. In addition, she received the Distinguished Scientist Award for 2011 from the Texas A&M chapter of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.
For more information on Darensbourg’s work, visit http://www.chem.tamu.edu/rgroup/marcetta.
This article was originally published by the College of Science.
You can support faculty research at Texas A&M University’s College of Science with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
Michael Morelius ’98
Director of Development
Although human in vitro fertilization (IVF) has been successful since the 1970s, similar reproductive technology in horses has lagged behind. Success rates stubbornly hover between zero and 30 percent, and only two live foals have been born using IVF.
The main problem seems to be with the ability of sperm to penetrate the egg. Ongoing research, much of it at Texas A&M University, has led to the ability to successfully mature horse oocytes in vitro. However, achieving in vitro sperm capacitation—which involves a series of changes that sperm must undergo in order to be able to fertilize an egg—has proven to be more complicated. A solution may soon be at hand, though; Dr. Leticia Vivani, a Ph.D. student working jointly in Dr. Katrin Hinrichs’ and Dr. Dickson Varner’s labs at the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (CVM), is working on the reasons behind this problem.
“We are trying to understand the factors that regulate the process of sperm capacitation,” Vivani said. “Of course, this happens perfectly well when we breed a mare, but not when we try to mimic this in vitro. We do not know the reason, but I am almost sure there is something ‘special’ within the mare reproductive tract, something that might not be needed in other species, but that makes stallion sperm undergo all these changes.”
Hinrichs’ lab has determined that for some reason, equine sperm are different from those of other species. For example, incubation conditions that successfully induce hyperactivation (the whip-like tail motion needed to penetrate the egg) and subsequent fertilization in other species fail to do so with equine sperm. “There can be so many things that can be affecting capacitation, and there is very little research done on equine sperm physiology,” Vivani said. “This is good, in a way, because anything you do is new, is innovative, but at the same time, the research can be very challenging and frustrating.”
Some progress is being made in understanding equine sperm capacitation. In 2009, by inducing hyperactivated motility with a substance called procaine, researchers at Cornell University achieved the highest fertilization rate to date (61%). Unfortunately, this is not a practicable solution for embryo production because procaine is toxic to the embryos. “This was nevertheless an important finding,” Vivani said, “because it showed us that the failure of IVF was likely due to a sperm-related problem. We now know that there is something difficult about inducing appropriate equine sperm motility in vitro, and that may be why IVF rates have been so low.”
Vivani, who earned her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree in her native Argentina in 2001 and her Master of Science degree at the University of Massachusetts in 2010, has long wanted to study at Texas A&M with this team of researchers.
“I have been fascinated with equine reproduction, and the reasons behind the failure of IVF in the horse in particular, since my DVM graduation,” Vivani said. “Therefore, I’ve been dreaming of working with Dr. Hinrichs and with Dr. Varner since I was in Argentina. I had been writing to them and calling them for years before I was eventually able to make it work to come to Texas A&M, first as a visiting researcher and then as a Ph.D. student.” She began her program in May 2012 and plans to graduate in 2016.
“Horses are an excellent model for human comparative studies. Mice, for example, do not age as women do, but the changes that mares undergo are very similar to women’s changes with aging,” Vivani said. “When mares reach a certain age, their reproductive efficiency decreases as a result; changes in hormone levels, follicular development, and oocyte quality are very similar in older mares and older women. So it’s a great model for human medicine.”
Just as in human medicine, owners of horses for whom natural reproduction has failed turn to assisted reproduction technologies. In horses, this often means using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a technique of “bypassing” standard IVF by injecting a sperm directly into the egg (see sidebar). The ICSI technique is also sometimes used in humans, especially when more traditional IVF has not worked. At the moment, the only way to successfully produce a horse embryo in vitro is through the use of ICSI, which many breeders are increasingly using. “However, is not the most physiological way,” Vivani said, “and is not always practical, as it requires time, sophisticated equipment, and trained personnel. That is why I focus on how to make IVF work.”
Ironically, the One Health approach, which usually means translating findings from animals into human medicine, works backward in this case. IVF works well in humans, and has for more than 30 years. However, it is not yet successful in horses, and perhaps going back to the basics of reproduction can help explain why that is the case.
“In the beginning basic research was hard for me,” Vivani said, “because I was trained as a veterinarian and I just wanted to see results. My advisor for my master’s degree, who is a basic researcher, made me stop and ask why things work or not, and I’m very grateful that he did.” In fact, the IVF technique was pioneered through basic research that led to the discovery of capacitation.
“Dr. Hinrichs and other researchers like her have focused on really understanding physiological processes related to reproduction,” Vivani said. “For many years we, working in equine reproduction, tried one thing and if it didn’t work, we tried a completely different thing without trying to figure out why it didn’t work, and this process explains why there is so little information in this area.”
Despite all of the challenges, Vivani says that she finds her work extremely satisfying, partly due to her excellent mentors. “Dr. Hinrichs and Dr. Varner are so encouraging with their students and really value their work,” Vivani said. “They always encourage me to learn as much as I can. Studying with them has been a wonderful experience—truly a dream come true.”
This article was originally published by the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences.
You can support research at Texas A&M University’s College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
O.J. Bubba Woytek ’64
Assistant Vice President for Development
College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
When Shannon Deer returned to Texas A&M University to teach after working for two years at a Big 4 accounting firm in Houston, she knew she wanted to arm her students with information that is practical and can place them in a good job. Her emphasis on the energy industry has provided both.
Deer teaches intermediate accounting at Mays Business School and serves as the assistant department head for the accounting department. She answered a few questions about her chosen path:
Why it is important for our current students to learn about energy
The energy industry has its own language. To obtain a competitive advantage in the industry, our students need to be fluent in the language. They need to know what operational terms such as fracking, casing, oil sands and even pig (used to clean a pipe) mean. They need to know where major shale plays are located and why Henry Hub in Louisiana, Cushing, Okla., and Mt. Belvieu, Texas, are important to product pricing. A petroleum engineering major or a geology major would likely have this terminology embedded in many courses. Until we started programs specific to the energy industry, most business majors were not exposed to these concepts.
Until our students understand the industry from an operational perspective, they cannot master industry-specific accounting and finance concepts. I want our students to walk in the first day on the job and be able to speak the language and understand a company’s strategy in addition to being able to account for derivatives or exploration costs. Every year I receive emails from former students who are excited because they were able to explain a concept they learned in class to their coworkers who did not attend schools with energy-specific business courses.
Additionally, the energy industry is facing many challenges today. Several examples of risks facing the industry according to Ernst & Young, who employs many of our students, include cost containment, a deficit of human capital, operating in new markets, and managing public perceptions about environmental and health concerns related to new technologies. Our students are the future leaders who will manage these issues as they progress through their careers. I want to teach them to think critically about these risks from a business perspective.
Why it is important for our graduates to work in the energy industry
It is important our graduates are able to work in the energy industry, because the corporate hub for many energy companies is only 90 miles from College Station – in Houston. Across Texas, there are many excellent opportunities to work in the energy industry and we want to make sure our students are initially competitive for those jobs and can quickly excel in those jobs.
Our students pursue a variety of career paths within the energy industry. Many of our students start their careers in public accounting. Especially for those working in Houston, there is a high probability some or all of their clients will be energy companies. Each year, several students go into consulting and investment banking focused on energy clients or become financial planners evaluating energy portfolios. I have one student who transitioned after several years in energy-focused investment banking to a private equity firm that funds new midstream energy companies.
Energy companies are very eager to recruit our students and are providing excellent and competitive rotational programs designed to give students broad experience in a short period of time. Baby Boomers are retiring from energy companies and need young professionals to fill those positions. Our students who complete rotational programs with energy companies are primed to fill the gap left by Baby Boomers.
Additionally, the energy industry helped insulate Houston and all of Texas from the devastating effects of the financial crisis. We are lucky our students are still being aggressively recruited when some industries were laying employees off.
Programs I have developed
In developing energy programs in Mays, my goal has been to increase the number of cross-discipline opportunities for our students. Very early in our students’ careers they will be working with engineers and geologists in addition to accountants and finance professionals. The following opportunities are now available:
- BUSN 302 – a one-hour seminar, open to all business majors. The course is designed to expose students to operational aspects of the industry, such as exploring, drilling, producing, transporting, and processing oil and natural gas. We have business and operations experts such as engineers and geologists speak to the students in interactive sessions.
- Energy accounting – This course is accounting specific, but carefully links all accounting and finance topics covered to operational issues. Marathon was instrumental in helping me develop projects, which are the center of the course, that provide student hands-on practical experience.
- Phillips 66 Energy Panel – Each semester, including the summer, Mays and Phillips 66 hosts an energy panel. Experienced and new business professionals represent some of the largest energy companies (for example, Anadarko, BHP Billiton, Enterprise, Marathon, Oxy, and Southwestern). Students have the opportunity to interact, in a group of 8-10, with the company representatives who rotate tables over the course of the evening. The event is sponsored by Phillips 66 and is open to students from all majors. See http://mays.tamu.edu/energypanel/ for more information and upcoming panels.
- Halliburton Case competition – Teams for the case competition must include at least three members from Mays and can have up to one member from another discipline. Students are presented with a realistic issue facing Halliburton and given 48 hours to develop a solution. Halliburton executives judge the competition. Prizes are awarded to first-place through third-place teams in the amounts of $4,000, $2,500, and $1,500 http://mays.tamu.edu/acct/halliburton/.
- Certificate program – The certificate program requires students to take the courses listed above, as well as an energy elective (preferably in another discipline), a required foundational accounting course, and an energy related internship. The certificate program is especially helpful in matching interested employers with top quality students interested in the industry.
- Energy finance – A course I teach in the Professional MBA program designed to help students consider companies’ strategies when using derivatives to hedge price risk, analyze energy companies’ financial statements, and determine the impact of reserves.
- Energy Club – The Energy Club is an excellent opportunity for students of all majors interested in learning more about energy companies. I try to speak to them each year and I invite members to all energy related events in Mays. http://energyclub.tamu.edu/
- Energy Institute – we are now working more closely with EI to create cross-discipline programming for students across campus.
This article was originally published by Mays Business Online.
You can support the Mays Business School at Texas A&M University with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
Brian Bishop ’91
Senior Director of Development
The first time I came to College Station—I was maybe six years old—the driving lanes left an impression. Having come from Fredericksburg, Texas, where there are still no double-lane turn lanes, I noticed that the intersection of Texas Avenue and University Drive had dotted lines to guide turning drivers.
I had been introduced to Aggie jokes around the same time, because my sister had accepted her admission to Texas A&M University and some longhorn relative gave her the book “The Best of 606 Aggie Jokes.” So from the backseat of my parents’ minivan, having noticed those white dashes, I asked my family if “Aggies were too dumb to know how to turn and that’s why they needed lines to show them?”
You can bet that story has been retold a time or two.
Neither of my parents went to college. My mom Susan worked more than 30 years for the U.S. Postal Service as a highway contract carrier, while my father Atlee is a rancher. I have three older sisters, Colleen ’02, Laura ’04 and Janiece ’07. We all finished top of our class in high school—a favorite fake argument of my parents is to debate from which side of the family we got our brains—and we all ended up in Aggieland.
One of my favorite Texas A&M memories is from June 2011. The Texas 4-H Youth Development Foundation awarded its annual scholarships that summer in Rudder Tower. Halfway through the ceremony, I was called for one of three $16,000 scholarships from the Star of Texas Fair & Rodeo (Rodeo Austin). If you’ve ever stood up too quickly and felt the blood rush to your head, then you know how I felt at that moment. I do not wear heels as a general safety rule, so the only thought I had walking onstage was please don’t fall. It was only a little later that I processed the full magnitude of what I had been given.
I applied for more than 40 scholarships my senior year of high school, and I received 22. Combined with scholarships I later received in college, I generated a total of nearly $75,000. The Star of Texas Fair & Rodeo scholarship was the largest, and it helped me singlehandedly pay for my entire college education.
I’ve been working in the marketing department at the Texas A&M Foundation for more than two years, and I learned quickly that there are a thousand stories like mine. There are thousands of Aggies who get a tremendous boost from private scholarships funded by former students, corporations and other friends of Texas A&M.
The Aggie record of philanthropy is a strong draw for prospective students. I applied to only one other college, the University of Texas at Austin, but I received virtually no offers of financial support, despite being valedictorian and an involved student; that was a major deterrent. At Texas A&M, not only did I have financial support, but I’ve had many out-of-classroom experiences because of it: studying abroad in Nicosia, Cyprus, interning at a public affairs firm in Washington, D.C., working at the Foundation, working as an under graduate assistant and serving on staff for the MSC Leland T. and Jessie W. Jordan Institute for International Awareness.
Something else I’ve learned at the Foundation is that $75,000 is almost pocket change to the many millions that donors give annually. But to me, it was no joke.
By Dunae Crenwelge ’15
This article was originally posted in the Postscript section of the summer 2014 issue of Spirit magazine. Read the full publication here.
You can support student scholarships at Texas A&M University with a gift of endowment to the Texas A&M Foundation.
Marcy Ullmann ’86
Manager of Scholarship Programs